Timeline Of The Soviet Union

Initially, Stalin joined the party’s Bukharinite faction by defeating Trotsky, who considered Stalin a great potential rival because of his charisma. With Trotsky safely banned, he turned against the right-wing supporters of NEP to consolidate control over the party and the state. He adapted the ‘left’ attitude that was against market agriculture, because despite unfavorable circumstances they wanted to quickly create the material basis for communism through a planned economy. But he also supported the idea of “socialism in a country” of the “right” faction, which preferred to focus on internal development rather than export the revolution. In this respect, it also favored extensive exports of grains and raw materials; Foreign exchange gains enabling the Soviet Union to import foreign technologies necessary for industrial development. Fighting the civil war would really compel the party to put these principles into practice.

It involved widespread cleansing of the Communist Party and government officials, oppression of farmers and leadership of the Red Army, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of “spoilers”, “prison sentence” and arbitrary executions. First five-year plan A list of economic objectives drawn up by Secretary-General Joseph Stalin and based on his one-country socialism policy, implemented between 1928 and 1932. In 1929, Stalin worked on the plan to establish collective farming systems that spread over thousands of acres of land and worked on hundreds of farmers.

At the same time, the USSR became the largest arms exporter to the developing world. Significant amounts of Soviet resources during the Cold War were allocated to the other socialist states. Resources were made available for rapid industrialization, significantly increasing Soviet capacity in heavy industry and capital goods in the 1930s.

Encouraged by the failure of the coup, the Congress of Deputies of the USSR granted substantial powers to the republics, with the “center” retaining only control over foreign and defense policy. But the republics were increasingly reluctant to accept any restriction on their sovereignty. After the central government lost its authority, demands for independence were heard on all sides, making the ultimate dislocation of the USSR inevitable.

The referendum gave Gorbachev a small boost and in the summer of 1991 most republics designed and agreed on a new Union treaty, making the Soviet Union a much looser federation. However, the signing of the treaty was interrupted by the August coup – an attempted coup against Mikhail Gorbachev by conservative members of the Communist Party, called “hardliners” by the Western media. After the coup collapsed, Yeltsin came out as a hero while Gorbachev’s power was effectively ended.

The glasnost policy gave public access to information after decades of strong government censorship. The following year, Gorbachev refused to interfere in the internal affairs of Soviet satellite states, paving the way for the 1989 revolutions. In particular, the stagnation of the Soviet Union at the pan-European picnic in August 1989 caused a peaceful chain reaction at the end of which the Eastern Bloc collapsed. With the demolition of the Berlin Wall and with East and West Germany pursuing unification, the Iron Curtain fell between the regions controlled by the West and the Soviets. Khrushchev started “The Thaw”, a complex change in the country’s political, cultural and economic life.

However, without birth control, the new system produced many broken marriages, as well as countless children out of wedlock. The epidemic of divorces and extramarital affairs created social difficulties when Soviet leaders soviet collectibles wanted people to focus their efforts on growing the economy. Giving women control over their fertility also led to a precipitous decline in the birth rate, perceived as a threat to their country’s military power.

The debate about the future of the economy provided the background for Soviet leaders to fight for power in the years following Lenin’s death in 1924. By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating his rivals within the party, especially Lenin’s most obvious heir, Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin became the sole leader of the Soviet Union in the late 1920s. The US government was initially hostile to Soviet leaders for removing Russia from World War I and was against an ideological communism-based state. Although the United States started a famine program in the Soviet Union in the early 1920s, American entrepreneurs established trade ties there during the period of the new economic policy (1921–29), the two countries only entered into diplomatic relations in 1933. By then, the totalitarian character of the Joseph Stalin regime was an insurmountable obstacle to friendly relations with the West. Although World War II brought the two countries into alliance, the Soviet Union’s aggressive and undemocratic policy towards Eastern Europe, based on the common goal of defeating Nazi Germany, had caused tensions before the end of the war .

The country’s main official was the President of the Supreme Council of the Soviet Union. Over the years, this position was occupied by Soviet leaders and effectively heads of state, such as Josef Stalin, Georgy Malenkov, Nikita Khrushchev, Leonid Brezhnev, Yuri Andropov, Konstantin Chernenko, and Mikhail Gorbachev. In the absence of an acceptable successor, the highest Communist Party officials chose to rule the Soviet Union together, although the struggle for power took place behind the facade of collective leadership.

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